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ROMANIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST - Part 3

By
Dr. Donald Kenrick, Director, Institute of Contemporary
Romani Studies & Documentation, London

 
 


A Tentative Chronology

226 AD - Ardashir becomes Emperor of Persia, and in 227 AD conquers parts of N. India. The Ka'be-ye-Zardusht inscription suggests the Persian Empire reached Peshawar and the Rann of Kutch by the reign of Shapur I (ascended throne 241 AD).

(Nomadic groups calling themselves Dom, Sindhi and Kale begin to travel in Iran but with return journeys to India. They make contact with the Alans, who were a nomadic group in the Black Sea region from whom they borrow both the idea of the 'living waggon' and the word 'ordon.')

370 AD - Home base of the Alans occupied by the Huns and the Alans flee to Europe.

415-500 AD - White Huns (Hephtalites) invade North India. Toramana and Mihirakula establish kingdom in Kashmir and Punjab.

(Sindhi plus some Dom and Kale do not return to India on their migration but their route extends to the north-west of Iran, taking over the territory where the Alans nomadised and bringing them into contact with speakers of Georgian and Armenian. By the time of the Arab invasion of Iran these groups had already left the country, which explains the limited number of Arabic loan-words in European Romani).

420-438 AD - Reign of Bahram V Gur

A large group of musicians and their families come from India. These have at times been described as Luri and, at other times, as Jat (Zott). Mohan Singh (ROMA 2,1) has probably hit upon the truth, they they are neither, but Gandharva. All we can be sure about is that they came to Iran in the reign of Bahram Gur and that (according to Firdausi's story) they ate beef (i.e., were not practising Hindus). I quote now from a less-well-known source.

"Bahram saw some men and blamed them for depriving themselves of music. They said: 'We looked for a musician and offered 100 dirhems but could not find one.' Bahram wrote to Schankalat the Indian to ask him to send to his court four
thousand of the most able musicians and dancers. After Schankalat had sent them, Bahram spread them through the province, ordering the people to employ them and be amused by them and pay them justly" (Zotenberg, p. 567).

These musicians may have been absorbed by later migration or remain as a distinct group of 'Motribiya' (see below).

(Zott-Jat emigrate into Iran in small numbers and are already there when the Arabs invade.)

632 AD - Presence of Zott in Bahrein recorded in the reign of Caliph Abu Bekr (632-634 AD) (Ibn al Atir, see MacRitchie, p. 15, JGLS (NS) vii pp. 310).

c. 642 AD - In the reign of Caliph Oma(?) I (635-644) the Arabs captured Haumatu-z-Zott (district of the Zott) on the border of Iraq and Iran. This was evidently an established settlement. "Six leagues south-east of Ramhurmuz on the road to Arrajan was the Hawmah or district of the Zott. The district was watered from the river Tab and here stood the two populous villages called Az-Zutt and Al-khabaran" (Le Strange, p. 244).

669 AD - In the reign of the Caliph Muawiya (661-680) "Muawiya removed to the coasts a race of Zutt of Basrah abd Sayabigah, and settled some at Antioch" (Baladhuri. See MacRitchie p. 17, JGLS ib. p. 308).

It seems that the Zutt had their own quarter in Basrah at that time, as they had in Bahrein. The Sayabigah were another Indian group who were clerks.

At about the same time we have a reference to a 4th group of Zott, probably a group of craftworkers attached to an Arab tribe (Tamim), in the same way as groups of Ghorbati are attached to Persian and Kurdish nomadic tribes today. "Tamim came and their Zott, and the Asawir" (Wellhausen, p. 397).

Finally we have the forced migration of larger number of Jat from India.

712 AD - In the reign of the Caliph Al-Walid (705-712) and Governor Al-Hajjaj of Iran (704-15) when the Arabs invaded Sindh some Jats fought with them. The Arabs, however, became suspicious of their allies and deported them with their families (ROMA 1,1 p. 9-11). Sources vary as to where they were settled, but the most probable is the marshlands between the Euphrates and the Tigris as Al-Hajjaj was engaged in draining and populating these marshlands. For a short period (820-834) these Jats succeeded in establishing their own state but were defeated and scattered throughout the Arab empire. One group of men were used as troops at Ainzarba against the Byzantine and were captured by them. They may possibly have stayed some time in Cilician Armenia before coming into European Byzantium.

It seems likely that three separate groups moved through the Middle East into Europe, then: Dom via Syria, Zott via Ainzarba (Aintab ?) and a third group (more Dom, Sindhi, Kale) through North Iran and Armenia proper.


The Luri

The first records of this group date from around 1,000 AD.

Ath-Tha'alibi (Zotenberg, p. 567) writes of the Black Luris whose special profession is to play the flute (mizmar) and lute (ud). "Ten years earlier (1011) Firdausi was less complimentary.

"The Luri wander through the world, seeking their living, stopping to rest with dogs and wolves, and always travelling to steal by night and day."

However, the poets Hafiz and Minushihri see them as romantic minstrels.

"Those soft-voiced Luli for whom we sigh" (Hafiz, in the poem "Oh, Turkish raid of Shiraz").

Now, we find Luri throughout Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Bray (1911) in his Census of Baluchistan counted 10,936 and wrote that they prefer to be known as Lopi or Sarmastari (trade designations). Nearly every tribe of Baluchi had some Lori families attached and, if one was killed, the blood-money was twice that of a Baluch! This shows their value as craftsmen and musicians. Their language is called Lorichini or Mokhi. He gives some vocabulary, e.g., nodo-woman (which seems to be a reversal of 'danah' in Lugha jargon, see below).

In 1967 Matheson writes:

"Songs are generally sung by professionals called Doms or Loris, paid minstrels who are often attached to the retinue of a chieftain or wealthy headman. These Doms use a rhyming slang inverting Persian, Brahui and Baluch words to form a
language that few outsiders can understand. Marriage between a Baluchi and a Dom is strictly forbidden."

Barker and Mengal in their Baluchi vocabulary give "Lori-a lower caste who act as artisans and minstrels."

I leave it to those on the spot to investigate further but I would like to propose again my hypothesis that the Luri did not move from India into Iran, but migrated in the opposite direction, accompanying the Baluch in their journey from north-west Iran eastwards.


Nawwar

An Arabic dictionary of 981 AD gives the verb 'nawwara' meaning "to act like a Nuri (pl. Nawwar), to practise juggling, deceit" (JGLS (NS) vii p. 303).

This indicates that there were nomads known as Nuri at that time, though we have no means at present of knowing whether they were ancestors of the Nuri (Dom) of present-day Syria. The word 'nawwara' may well come from Arabic 'nur' (fire) and mean either blacksmith or fire-worshipper. Even if these nomads were called fire-worshippers (Zoroastrians) this may have been used as a term of insult rather than a religious description. Ivanow (1920 p. 283) has suggested that the term 'Mugh' (used for another group of Gypsies) has the same meaning.


The Banu Sassan and Lugha

The Banu Sassan were a group of wandering craftsmen and entertainers in the Middle Ages, almost certainly of mainly Arab origin.

Al-Hariri wrote of them:

"There is no country that they call their home, nor any sovereign to whom they confess allegiance, but they are like (the birds) that go out in the morning empty and return home in the evening with a full stomach" (no. 30).

Their interest for us lies in their jargon known as Lugha (Arabic word for 'language') which has considerably influenced the Romani of the Middle East. With the exception of Domari/Kaloro and North Karachi, all the vocabularies of the Middle Eastern Gypsies contain Lugha words.

We have two sources for the vocabulary of the Banu Sassan. The first is a poem by Al-Ukburi (The Club-footed), himself a Ben Sassan. (This poem, later copied by another Ben Sassan, Abu Dulaf (circa 942 AD) is preserved in an anthology by the Arab poet Ath-Tha'alibi (not to be confused with the historian Ath-Tha'alibi, above). The second source for Lugha is a vocabulary of Darwish jargon words preserved in a single manuscript. This manuscript was offered to Ivanow in 1922 and, although he didn't buy it, considering the price excessive, he copied the title page (The Beginning of the book of the pa(?)asitical Sasiyan) and most of the vocabulary. Extracts from this vocabulary (vowels reconstructed by DK, not Ivanow) show that we have here the source of much of the jargon of the Ghorbati, Koli and other groups.

Daneh woman
Kenaw thief (originally Hebrew or Aramaic)
Nuhur eye

In fact these words are so widespread that I referred to them in part 1 of this series as part of the basic vocabulary of 'ben' Romani, which indeed they now are. Romanologs paid little attention to this discovery and it was left to the Russians Troitskaya and Oranski to develop the research field of research indicated. They have used what must be the same manuscript, or a copy of it, now kept in Bokhara; so perhaps the unfortunate Derwish got his money in the end from another Russian scholar.

I refer the bibliography to anyone who wishes to explore this subject. Suffice it to say for now that the vocabularies of the Gypsies of the Middle East, and indeed of certain other groups of nomads, are permeated by words which can be traced back to the Lugha jargon. In all records these words, mixed with words of Indian origin, are used with the grammar (morphology) of surrounding languages. Thus the Mughat will say:

Harsit me-oholim (I eat bread) syllables in italics are Tadjik verb endings)

While the (non-Romani) circus-folk of Assian USSR say

harsit axleyman, syllable in italics is Uzbek verb ending. As a matter of interest, the Lugha word 'ohol/axl' is from Hebrew (Aramaic) and 'harsit' from Arabic (where it meant 'uncooked mincemeat').

Other Lugha words which are common in the Gypsy vocabularies of the Middle East are dax (good), tanagul (hen), duhut (meat), dela (house), kokon (teeth, mouth).

Finally it remains to be considered how this vocabulary was passed to the Romanies. Apart from the obvious contacts between two groups of nomads, I believe there was another channel by which the vocabulary was carried and that was the Sufi Derwishes, who also used Lugha when it suited them to use a secret language. (There is an interesting parallel here with Ireland where the wandering tinkers and monks shared a common secret tongue.)

There are three possible sufi channels through which these words would have passed to the Romanies. Firstly, at the rest-houses (khanegah) and frontier posts (ribat) where both Sufis and nomads stopped overnight. Secondly, by individual contact with the Qalandari (wandering faqirs) and thirdly through the Rifa'iyya order of Sufis who performed snake-charming dances at gatherings to which Gypsies may well have been attracted. (Trimingham p. 5 10 16017). Sufi contacts would have reinforced those with the Banu Sassan, and if it was mainly through the Sufis that these words came to the Romanies, this would explain the lack of these words in the lexicon of the European Rom who left the Middle East before the establishment of the orders and the staging-posts.


An Alphabetical Index to the Romani Groups in the Middle East Today

I partly accept the criticism of Kochanowski and Mohan Singh that European scholars have over-emphasized the distinction between groups, rather than looking at the overall essential unity. However, in my defence I can only say that these distinctions are made by the Rom themselves. It must be remembered that the different names often only represent a profession, or the name of a common grandparent, and cannot be compared to the system of castes and sub-castes that existed in India before Independence.

Alimah: A name given to Gypsies in Arab lands (Singhal, p. 260).

Aptal: North Syria. Jugglers and conjurors who do not consider themselves to be Gypsies. (JAS 1911, p. 226-7)

Awgon: Comparatively recent immigrants from India to Soviet Asia. Speak an Indian dialect, but it is not Afghan (Pushto) or Romani. (Oranski)

Awgon-Luli: 'Afghan-Luli.' A name given to the nomadic Luri in the USSR. See Luri (iii) below.

Banu Sassan: Non-Romani nomads in the Middle East in mediaeval times. See above, and bibliography.

Barake: Syria. "There are 10,000 Barake and other Gypsies in Syria." (Monde Musulman).

Beluchi, Balochi: (i) A non-Romani semi-nomadic race of some 2 million living in Iran, USSR, Afghanistan, Pakistan. Migrated from north-west Iran in historical times.
(ii) A name used for themselves by Luri (iii) in the USSR.
(iii) Biloch (sic.) nomads still travelled from India into Central Asia at the end of the 19th century. (JGLS (NS) vi p. 51-52).

Bosha: The name given to the Lom (q.v.) by the Armenians.

Catchar: A sub-group of Koli (q.v.) (Arnold 1967).

Djugi: (i) Another name for the Koli (Arnold 1 67, MacDowell p. 162.)
(ii) The name given to the Mugat (q.v.) by the Tadjiks (Nazarov, Narodi srednei Azii). See also Oranski.

Dummi: The name has also been recorded as Demmi, Deman, Duman.
(i) In Iran (JGLS (NS) ii
(ii) In Syria and Iraq. Newbold (word-list), Monde Musulman.
The presence of Kurdish words in the Syrian vocabulary suggest, they came earlier from Iran, and may be related to the Suzmani (q.v.).

Goodari/Gaodari: A separate tribe in Iran, or possibly a sub-group of the Koli. Recorded in Asterabad and Mazendaran. (Block p. 56, Monde Musulman). The reference in Block (p. 19) to their reaching the Nile Valley has not been substantiated by my research. They are not known to the leading scholars of Egyptian Gypsies today.

Ghagar: A tribe in Egypt who migrated back from Europe. The men are blacksmiths while the women work as rope-dancers, tattooists and singers. They live in towns in the winter, and form a distinct group in Egypt, separate from the Helebi and Nawwar. Newbold (word-list), Sampson (word-list).

Gurbat, Ghorbati: The name has been derived from Arabic 'gharib' (stranger) as well as from the town of Kurbat.
(i) The name given to Koli who travel as craftsmen with nomadic Kurdish and Persian tribes in Iran. (Barth, MacDowell)
(ii) In Sirjan and Jiruft. Sykes (1902, 1906) (word-list), JGLS (NS) I
(iii) See Kurbat, below.
(iv) The name Gurbet was probably given to some tribes in Yugoslavia by the Turks. They speak 'pen' Romani and probably have no connection with groups of similar name in the Middle East.

Guaidiyah: In Syria and Mesopotamia (see JGLS (NS) vii p. 305).

Haddad: An Arabic word meaning 'Iron-worker,' and the name used for themselves by the Koli. (Arnold 1967).

Helebi, Halebi: The name comes perhaps from the town of Aleppo. A long-established group in Egypt and Libya. The men sell animals and act as vets. The women tell fortunes. Their language Sim consists mainly of new disguised formations from Arabic with a very small Romani and Lugha element. (Newbold) (word-list).

Hindustani: A name used for themselves by Luri (iii) in the USSR.

Hindustani Luli: One of the names by which the local Gypsies in the USSR call the nomadic Luri (iii).

Jat: A tribe rather than a caste in India & Pakistani. Nomadising and doing (on the whole) low-grade work in Afghanistan and East Iran. Their exact relationship to the romanies remains to be elucidated. It is also not clear whether the Jat of East Iran are descendants of earlier immigrants (see above) or comparative newcomers.

Juki: See Djugi.

Kabuli: The name is derived from the town of Kabul. Probably a sub-group of Koli in Iran, although they may be identical with the so-called 'Awgon' (not Awgon-Luli) of the USSR. (JGLS (1) ii)

Kaloro: Derived from 'kalo' (black) with diminutive ending. The name given to themselves by groups living in Marash, Aintab (=Ainzarba ?) and on the banks of the Euphrates. Their language is mutually comprehensible with Domari (see Nawar below) but there are significant differences in grammar.

Kara-chi: Turkish word meaning 'black man' (as does Kale and Kaloro). A derivation from the town of Karatch near Ispahan has also been suggested. There are two distinct groups as shown by the vocabulary, over 50% of which differs between the two groups. For example: go (English), gesht (N. Kara-chi), jaunk (S. Kara-chi); dog (English), kukyry (N. Kara-chi), senuta (S. Kara-chi).
(i) North Kara-chi (the term is mine, DK)
Elizabethpol (Transcaucasus, Azerbaijan)
Call themselves 'Dom' (Akhnazaroff, Sykes)
(ii) Tabriz (Iran).
This is the group I call South Kara-chi in the language section. Ouseley, JGLS (1) ii (NS) ii
(iii) See Qarachi.

Kara-luli: See Luli (iii) below.

Karashmar: =Krismal (Pott i.49)

Kasiba: Another name for the Mugat

Kenites: =Quenites

Kersi: In Asterabad (Iran) (Monde Musulman)

Koli: Almost certainly derived from the Romani 'kalo' (black) and not a contraction of Kabuli. Koli appears to be an overall term to cover a number of groups in Iran, rather like the use of the English word 'Gypsy.'
(i) The Iranian Gypsies used to call themselves Kauli-ye-Girbalbend (sieve-maker Koli) but now they prefer the term Haddad (iron-worker). There is no evidence to link them with the early Zott emigrants at present. JGLS (1) ii (NS) 3, xlvi, Arnold (1975) (pictures), MacDowell (pictures).
(ii) A group in Iraq (Et. Tsig. June 1973) probably connected with the Iranian Koli.

*At the time of writing (Summer 1976) there are Koli from Iran stopping in black tents outside Rome, buying up large quantities of imitation gold to sell back in Iran where it is very popular, looking like real gold, but being much cheaper. (p.c.) I doubt where this is the first trip to Europe.

Koudji: Pashto-speaking nomads in Afghanistan. In spite of an article in Vie et Lumiere 1973.1, there seems no reason to connect them with the Rom.

Kouli: In Afghanistan. Vie et Lumiere (ib.) The link between these, the Koli of Iran and the 'coolie' of literature is probably only the word.

Kurbat: In Aleppo, North Syria. Newbold derives the name from the town of Garbadakan near Aleppo. In spite of the similarity there is probably no connection with the Gurbat (Ghorbati).

This is one of the 'bhen' group of languages, retaining voiced aspirates (bhanu-sister, gaham-sun) which indicates a later emigration from India, or contact en route with the Baluchi language (whose use of aspirated consonants would have reinforced those in Kurbati). (Newbold (JRAS 1856, Pott i.48)

Kustani: In Abyssinia (Newbold p. 292)

Lom: Derived from the Indian word 'Dom' and considered to be a variant of 'Rom.' The people are also known as Bosha.

Narddi Kavkaza (vol. 2 p. 440) says that the Lom have almost disappeared in the Armenian SSR but survive as an independent group in Azerbaijan. They speak a variety of Armenian, using Romani words with Armerian morphology. JGLS (NS) 1 (word-list)

Luli: The word is probably connected with Luri, and there is some overlap in usage.
(i) The Uzbeks of the USSR use the name Liuli for the Mugat. Narodi srednei Asii vol. 2
(ii) The Mugat use the names 'Kara-Liuli,' 'Industani Liuli,' 'Awgon-Liuli' and 'Maimuni-Liuli' for the group that I call Luri (iii).
(iii) A name used in Kerman for an unidentified nomadic group. Sykes (1902) p. 344.
(iv) A name used in Iran for the Luri and Koli (JGLS (NS) ii, Pott i. 50).

Lur: Possibly the original aboriginal inhabitants of Iran. Now used for a group of nomadic tribes such as the Kurdshuli in West Iran. Speak a dialect of Persian called Luri. Not to be confused with the Luri. (Barth, Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Luri: Probably a caste of Beluchi, and not Romani.
(i) Firdausi uses the name for the musicians imported by Bahram Gur.
(ii) The Luri of East Persia, Afghanistan and Pakistan today.

A Beluchi informant has told me: "The Luri are low-caste Beluchi and other Beluchi will not intermarry with them. I would marry one as I don't see anything wrong with this. They are quite different from the Koli. The Koli travel around and my parents used to say they stead children."

(iii) In the USSR.
Wilkins in the last century met a nomadic group who called themselves Beluchi or 'Industani,' and whom the local Gypsies called Kara-Liuli (black Gypsies) and so on. They are not to be confused with the some 8,000 settled Beluchi in the USSR.
The word-list collected by Wilkins shows similarities with Romani, but also with Hindi and Beluchi. It is not a coded language, such as we are told the Luri of East Persia, Afghanistan and Pakistan speak, but in the printed records there are no phrases from which the grammar can be seen.

Mazang: A small group of settled Gypsies in the Asian USSR. They keep themselves separate from the Mugat. (Narodi srednei Azii vol. 2 (picture p. 601), Nazarov

Motribiya: An Arabic word meaning 'Musician.'
(i) Used for the Nawar in Syria (Mohit)
(ii) A group of nomadicGypsies seen in the Caucasus early this century. Probably temporary immigrants from Persia and one might speculate that they are the descendants of Bahram Gur's musicians. (Patkanoff in JGLS (NT) 1.vi)

Mugat: Although the USSR census of 1959 gave a figure of only 7,600 Gypsies for the Uzbek and Tadjik SSRs, it is thought that the correct figure would be nearer 30,000. Many Gypsies registered themselves as Uzbeks or Tadjiks.

They call themselves Mug (Pl. Mugat) and their own language Lavzi Mugat. They are called Lyuli by the Uzbeks, and Tadjiks call them Djugi. They are also known as Multani (from the town in Pakistan). Nazarov (ROMA 1,3) deals with them as 'local Gypsies, group (i)', but I have used the word Mugat (Mughat) throughout this series, as there are already quite enough groups called Luri and Luli without confusing the issue more.

The Mugat speak Tadjik and Sart (a language related to Turkish) as well as their own jargon (Lavzi Mugat) which is based on the vocabulary of the Banu Sassan (Lugha).

Multani: Another name for the Mugat. From the town in Pakistan (which was one of those sacked by Mahmud Ghazni when he invaded India in the 11th century).

Nawar: Arabic word ('blacksmith' or 'fire-worshipper'). A group bearing this name existed before the 10th century but there is no evidence to connect them with the group known by this name today. (This modern group call themselves Dom, and their language Domari).

The Nawwar of today are found in Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel (Atil, Adjzan, Jaulan) and elsewhere. Nuri bear-trainers were reported in Europe and America in the 19th century, and within the last year a group came to France and Germany (having crossed from North Africa).

Their language was first recorded by a Western scholar in 1806 (Seetzen) at which time it already contained many Arabic loan words. The grammar, however, remained distinctively Indian (see Domari in pt. 2 above) and has been described at length with stories in JGLS (1) ii (NS) iii, iv, v, vi. See also Pott, American Anthropologist 1902, Et. Tsig 1968, 1972.

A correspondent informs me that one tribe was attacked from the air during the 3rd Arab-Israeli war as their black tents were mistaken for a military unit. The various misisonary groups who travel from the European Gypsy Pentecostal Church to India have made contact with some Nuri (Dom) groups but have not found any that still speak the language.

Qarabana, Qarabtu: In Iran (see Tahen)

Qarachi: Non-Romani nomads in Iran (Not to be confused with the Kara-chi). Barth p. 131.

Quenites: Non-Romani tinkers in ancient Palestine (Numbers xxiv. 21) Clebert (p. 42) confusingly marks them on his map.

Qorbati: See Ghorbati (i) above


Quf: See JGLS (NS) viii p. 151

Rawazi: A name given by the Arabs to the Gypsies. Singhal vol. 1 p. 260

Sagvand: Iran (see Tahen)

Sahsawan: North Iran (see JGLS (NS) viii p. 151)

Sayabigeh: An Indian tribe in Syria and Persia in the 6th and 7th century. Many of them served as civil servants. Not to be confused with the Islamic sect of Sabaiya JGLS (NS) vii p. 308-11, de Goeje, Encyclopaedia of Islam.

Shurasti: Iran (see Tahen)

Suzmani: Kurdistan. Live in the village of Kuchlag near Senna. They are also known as Dummi and may be related to the Duman of Syria.

The men are musicians and the women, dancers. (Lycklama describes the dancers). They nomadise during the pilgrimage season.

Lycklama, JGLS 1909, Monde Musulman, articles Senna and Sarpul-i-Zohab in Enc. Islam.

Tavoktarosh: Central Asia. Semi-settled doing low-grade work. Call themselves Mugat but consider themselves a separate group from both the Mugat proper and Mazang. First reported by Nazarov.

Zangi: =Zanju (?) and derived from the town of Zanjan. Marked on Clebert's map (p. 43). See JGLS vii p. 316 and MacRitchie p. 42.

Zargari: A group that re-emigrated from Europe. In Persia and probably the USSR. I notice that the term 'Zargari' for a jargon formed by inserting z-between syllables was noted prior to this series by Troitskaya independently.

Zott: The Arabic word for 'Jat'
(i) Before the 10th century. See above.
(ii) Now used as a synonym of Nawwar. Whether the group now known as Nawwar or Zott is directly descended from the historical Zott is not yet proven.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abu 'I-Faraj Kitabu-I-Aghani (on Zott)
Arnold (i) see JGLS (3) xlvi (1967)

(ii) Randgruppen des Zigeunervolkes. Neustadt. 1975 (Pictures of Koli)
Akhnazaroff See JGLS (1) ii p. 21 and (NS) ii p. 260
Al-Baladhuri Futuhu-I-Buldan (ed. De Goeje) p. 73
Barker and Mengal Course in Baluchi (McGill University, Canada)
Barth Nomads of S. Persia. Oslo 1964
Bray D. Report of the Census of Baluchistan
Bloch J. Les Tsiganes, Paris 1953
Burton Jew, Gypsy and El Islam, London 1896
Clebert The Gypsies. Penguin. 1967
Encyclopaedia of Islam Articles on Luii, Nuri, Sarpul, Senna, Zott and others
Et. Tsig. Etudes Tsiganes, Paris
Galtier Les Tsiganes d'Egypte Institute francais d'archaeologie orientale a Caire vo. 27)
de Goeje see MacRitchie
Hamza Al-Isfahani Tarikh sini mulk-il-Ard wa'l-Arabiya (on Bahram Gur)
Al-Hafagi Safa 'l-Gabil (on Banu Sassan)
Al-Hariri Makamat trs Porter. London 1852 (on Banu Sassan)
Harriott see Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society 1830 vol. 2
Ibn Danial Adjib wa Gharib (on the Banu Sassan)
Ivanow See Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1914, 1920, 1922, 1927
JGLS Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society
Al-Jawbari Kitabu 'l-Mukhtar fi Kashf- 'l Asrar (section 6 on the Banu Sassan)
Kitab Sasiyan MS 2213/XXV in Bokhara Institute (see Troitskaya)
Kremer see Anthropolical Review vol 2 (1864)
Lane An account . . . of the Egyptians. London 1871 (Chap. xx)
Al-Masudi (consulted in the translation Prairies d'Or)
Le Strange Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. London 1966
Littmann Zigeuner-arabischer Wortschatz. Bobb 1920
Lycklama Voyage en Russie au Caucase et en Perse. Pari 1875 (p. 34, 52)
Mattheson Tigers of Beluchistan
MacRitchie Accounts of the Gypsies of India. London 1886. (incl. trans of Goeje)
Minorski see Journal Asiatique 1931. p 281-385 (on Lur and Luri)
Mohit (Arabic dictionary)
Monde Musulman (cited from article in Et. Tsig.)
Mokadam Gujeshaje Wafs, Ashtian, Tafrash, Teheran. p. 142-156
de Morgan Miss. Scient. en Perse V (only) 1903 (on Djugi and Gaodari)
Narodi Kavkaza Narodi srednei Azii i Kazaxstana. Moscow 1963 vol. 2
Nazarov See also ROMA 1 iii
Orianski Dva indoariyskix dialekta iz Srednel Azii. (Indiyskaya i Iranskaya Filologiya 1964)

Indoyaznichnaya etnograficheskaya gruppa Afgon: (Sov. Etn. 1956)

(see also Sov. Vost. 1956 no. 4)

Novie svedeniya o sekretnix yazikax srednei Azii

1. Kavol. (Kratkie soobshcheniya Institute Narodov Azii 1961)

2. Jugi (Iranskaya Filologiya)

3. Chistoni (offprint, source not known)

On an Indian dialect discovered in Central Asia (25th International Congress of Orientalists 1960)
Ouseley see JGLS (1) ii
Patkanow Tsigani Bosha i Karachi. SPB. 1887
Porter K. Travels in Georgia. 1822 (on North Kara-chi)
Pott (i) Die Zigeuner 1884, 1964 (reprint) p. 48-51

(ii) Ueber die Sprache der Zigeuner in Syrien (in Hoetters Zeitschrift f. Wissenschaft der Sprache. Berlin. 1846)
Rhodokanakis See Berichte des Forschungs Institute f. Osten u. Orient. Wien. 1923
Singhal India and World Civilisation. London 1972
Sykes see Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society. 1902, 1906
Tahen see Kayhan International. January 29, 1969
Ath-Tha'alibi (i) Abu Monsur Abdu-l'Malik b. Muhammed Ismail) Yatimatu-d-Dahr (collection of poes including one on Banu Sassan)
Trimingham The Sufi Orders in Islam. OUP. 1971
Troitskaya Abdoltili. In Sov. Vost. V (Thanks to Sanarov for supplying this and Oranski articles)
Wellhausen The Arab Kingdom and its Fall. London 1973
Wirth Persian Gypsy vocabulary in JGLS (3) vi
ZDMG 1857 (Gobineau on Kara-chi), 1912 and 1919 (on Nuri in Germany)
Zotenberg Historie des Rois des Perses (trs of Ath-Tha'alibi) (i)

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